ATHLETIC PREPARATION


ATHLETIC PREPARATION IN FOOTBALL
 

There are three fundamental pillars on which the individual ability of the player is based

TECHNIQUE /TACTICS, COORDINATION AND PHYSICAL CONDITION. Most of what happens during the game has a close correlation with the physical preparation of the athlete, since it is impossible to play at a high level without an optimal physical condition. The first two are perfectible qualities. A player with a strong tactical sense will remain so throughout his career, while a player improperly trained will surely have visible drops in performance. In light of these considerations, this are the qualities that require particular attention in training a football player, analyzing how we can best organize an optimal preparation.

Coordinative skills (or more simply coordination) are the qualities that more than others intersect with the other fundamental variables of football, such as technique, tactics and athletic components; not surprisingly, they are also called “functional prerequisites”, as they serve as prerequisites for many skills of the player.

But what does all this mean in practice? It means that the training of coordination skills (multilateral in itself) is a fundamental prerequisite in order to have the motor bases on which to build the technical, tactical and athletic aspect of the player. What is important to understand, at a methodological level, is the influence of these on football performance in the various age categories and on how / when / why they must be intensively trained.

WHAT ARE THE COORDINATIVE SKILLS

It is important to understand how, although the coordination skills are general abilities, these must be trained specifically in the discipline practiced and according to age. In fact, despite the training methodology, it divides them into more than 10 skills (balance, manual eye coordination, motor reaction, motor anticipation, etc.).

Up to 6-7 years, the difficulty in learning the movements is due to the poverty of the motor patterns and to “irradiation” phenomena at the level of the central nervous system that can slow down the processes of fixation of gestures (ie learning) . Despite this, at this age it is possible to take advantage of 2 aspects that can help in the educational path, that is the motivation to discover and play.

AGILITY is certainly the most practicable quality in this moment of growth, also because it allows to consolidate the motor patterns; but let’s take a very trivial example of how agility influences football, and in the case of football, the frequency of steps. It is a fundamental coordinative aspect for the development of the technique. If a player has such a frequency of steps that he can touch the ball with each spin (as the ball rolls), then he will be able to guide the ball in space in a precise and effective manner; if, on the other hand, he will have such a frequency of steps to touch the ball every 3-4 spins, then he will have difficulties in guiding the ball … in other words, “the ball will guide the player and not the player the ball”. It is no coincidence that the players who emerge most often at this age are the ones who, thanks to their agility (frequency of movements), can manage the ball better. Some age-appropriate means are:  MOVEMENT, SENSE OF GAME.

CONCLUSION
The coordination training in the proposed categories cannot be separated from the concept of game, or at least from that of “challenge”.

PHYSICAL STRENGTH in football: what are the valuation parameters for professionals?

Strength training in football is a fundamental component and one of the central goals of physical preparation.

Data on the physical needs of calcium suggest that a high level of performance requires highly developed neuromuscular function (NF). An efficient NF can be important to maintain and / or increase performance (intense periods of sport-specific activities, accelerations, decelerations, sprints) in the short to long term during a game and over a season.

With regards to the strength / power training methods used by soccer players, “Hiit” seems to be more efficient than a moderate intensity (hypertrophic) resistance training. As for the frequency, 2 weekly sessions are enough to increase the production of strength during the pre-season, and a session seems adequate to avoid in-season de-training.

However, to further improve performance during the competition period, training should include a greater volume in specific sports power actions that “affect” the neuromuscular system.

The combination of strength / power training that includes different movement patterns and a greater focus on specific sports power actions is preferable to the traditional resistance training method.

What is the goal of strength training? Strength training in football should include a significant number of exercises that target the efficiency of the elongation-shortening cycle and specific sports actions. Manipulation of work surfaces can be an important training strategy, for example during injury recovery.

Moreover, given the concurrent conditional nature of the sport, high intensity training both in terms of strength and endurance could increase the total performance capacity.

The analysis suggests that neuromuscular training improves both physiological and physical measurements associated with a high level of performance in soccer players.

When we talk about flexibility, there is always a cloud of uncertainty in our arguments. Perhaps because it is a capacity of which little is known. Which is not thoroughly investigated. But that often lives with pleasure of the methods common to adults. One makes the mistake therefore of not investigating a capacity that is as important as strength or speed.

And that deserves respect even in the categories of the youngest. The objective of today’s article will be precisely to clarify, as the title says. Starting from the definitions, to understand what is referred to. Then discovering what are the elements that are part of it. Then move on to a more focused look at flexibility in football, and in particular that of younger players.

Flexibility is conceived as the ability to perform high-amplitude movements. It can be distinguished in active, which draws on the maximum motor amplitude attainable by an articulation, passive, consequent to an overload and static, or the ability to maintain the position in elongation for a given period.

The main articulations involved
in football are:

Hip joint in that the relationship between the pelvis and lower limbs will be more correct, as much as possible will be the prevention of the main pathologies linked to calcium, including pubalgia.

Articulation of the knee to explain the fact that during a football match both the extensor muscles and the flexor muscles of the thigh are stimulated, which contribute to the propulsion in the actions of running, shooting, jumping and kicking the ball.

Ankle joint as the triceps of the sura is fundamental in all the pushing movements of the lower limbs.

There are two main goals that athletic training aims to achieve: improving the athlete’s performance and preventing injuries.

The technical-tactical evolution of football in recent years has led to a reduction in playing spaces, increasing the speed of the action and the number and violence of physical impacts, for which the executive speed and the athletic weights gained in importancy.

Alongside the improvement of the muscular condition, achievable with loads of around 70%, it is necessary to treat elasticity, thus guaranteeing the freedom of movement of the joints and with it the efficiency of the athletic gesture itself. Furthermore, it is necessary to adopt constant stretching exercises, to restore the right level of elasticity and prevent muscle-tendon injuries.

Muscle groups

Abdominals, buttocks, quadriceps, tensor fascia lata, adductors, twins and anterior tibialis. But also the muscle groups of the trunk, which perform a stabilizing action of the physical balancing posture.

Once the solid bases of strength are built, it is possible to continue, gradually, seeking the development of the elastic-reactive qualities of the musculature, through specific exercises such as: plyometrics, leaps, gaits, in which it is always advisable to respect a progressivity.

IN ALL TRAINING PHASES
Three main phases are found in which to divide the ideal training for the players:

INITIAL PHASE (duration: 2 weeks on average) The initial training includes exercises aimed at improving the cardiovascular and muscular condition to prepare the athlete for the intensity of the second phase and involve all useful muscles.

DEVELOPMENT PHASE (duration: 4 weeks) Strength and endurance tests are carried out in which the conditions of the player are verified to assign him personalized training plans, including technical training and strategy.

SPECIFIC PHASE (6 weeks) The tests of physical strength, aerobic power and flexibility are repeated to redistribute the correct workloads, increasingly personalizing the training techniques.


The athletic preparation serves to develop the physical qualities (speed, muscle strength, power, endurance) taking into account the psychological aspect, a crucial element for effectively completing the bioenergetic and biomechanical aspects.

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